Although the concept of personality has a long history, dating back at least to the ancient Greeks’ classification of human personality types, its importance in the evolution of the mind and behavior has been recognized and addressed only in the past couple of decades. The evolutionary study of personality in both animals and humans is now a vibrant area of research in which a wide range of individual differences are studied from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. Yet questions such as the evolutionary maintenance of personality variation, the active role of personality in promoting evolutionary change, and the role of phenotypic plasticity still remain open and under investigation. The main purpose of this workshop is to encourage the application of a unified evolutionary framework to the study of animal and human personality, two fields that have progressed in parallel so far, without active cross-fertilization. We aim to provide an overview of recent advances and new directions in animal and human personality research, bringing together internationally renowned experts with similar interests but complementary perspectives in order to stimulate an exchange of ideas and foster research collaboration.